Ruby, sapphire, diamond: Breakthrough in scientific cognition – From precious minerals to lasers, graphene, nanonanomaterials … . / M. Avaliani. / Nano Studies. – 2021–2022. – # 21/22. – pp. 187-222. – geo. Review paper, dedicated to the memory of author’s father – Apollon Avaliani, is focused on the following themes and is discussed in the ensuing order: Introduction; Etymology of mineral names based on their shape, composition, geographical location or properties; Historical overview, myths and symbolism; Crystal structure of colored corundums and diamond; Properties of minerals; Methods of synthesized artificial crystals and their properties; Use of corundum group crystals and diamond, consumption and utilization of carbon and its modern allotropes; and Carbon as an example of allotropic diversity, diamond, graphite, graphene and other futuristic materials. Fig. 22, Ref. 51.